Sample Topic: Naked Tan Case Report

Title: Naked Tan Case Report



1. Introduction

2. Sexuality and Advertisement

3. The Future in Advertisement

4. Advertisement as a persuasive art

5. Conclusion




There is an indubitable fact that advertisement directly affects culture, but a question that remains to be answered concerns the nature of its impact; whether positive or negative. While we try to understand the nature of advertisement’s impact on societal values, we must also ensure that we have understood the rationale behind its creation and dissemination. Additionally, at some point during the process of establishing an advertising campaign, a situation might arise that requires moral deliberation. Similarly, a situation might arise that requires legal deliberation. Under such circumstances, we are required to evaluate critically the most life-affirming and ethical dimensions as opposed to life-denying dimensions in advertisements. It is at the hallmark of this understanding that this essay finds basis to deliberate on the case report number 0305/10 that was advertised by Naked Tan regarding professional services. Under the circumstances presented, the case stood dismissed. While it is not the role of this essay to find out whether the dismissal of the case was right or wrong, it is important that the author addresses the various parts of the case in the light of the principles of advertising as addressed by various scholars in this speciality of communication and advertising.


Sexuality and Advertisement

To begin with, the case brought forth issues of nudity, sex, and sexuality. Moreover, the subject matter of the case called for sensitivity when dealing with advertisements. A question arises as to what constitutes sensitive issues in advertising campaigns. For instance, an image of a naked female with her head concealed from the audience and with her hand covering her breast, with an inscription underneath stating "Naked Tan.” There are numerous aspects quite clear to us regarding this advertising phenomenon; one of them relates to those aspects that encompass inappropriate behaviours. We need to pose here to reminisce offer this imagery representation and to ask ourselves whether indeed suggestive issues involved are in contravention of the principles that regulate advertising. This calls for a consideration of the advertiser’s intention when creating and presenting the advertisement.


According to Barbara Stern in the revised communication model for advertisement, both the "advertisers, promotional text, and consumers (are) multidimensional participants in a complex interactive process (Stern, 1994, p.7).” This complexity originates from the various perspectives under which different recipients and encoders operate. Further, Stern goes ahead to note that advertisements have multidimensional source aspects; that is, the one sponsoring the advertisement, then the person actually authoring the advertisement, and finally the persona (Stern, 1994, p.8). Whereas the sponsor takes charge of financial obligations, the author is made responsible for the creative aspect. Hence, due to the creativity of the author, the advertisement becomes a fictional construct (Stern, 1994, p.8). This leads to a distinction between actual reality and implied reality. Meaning that, an author creates an advert that is meant to offer implications about certain real. But as people watch the various advertisements they are drawn to various perceptions about what the author actually attempted to promote.

However, a question arises as to whether what we perceive in adverts is actually, what the author implied. In most case, what we perceive is dictated by our decoding capacities and biases. There is a possibility of us translating advertisements under the influence of our prior experiences and perceptions. This explains the conflict that exists between the recipient and the sponsor of the advertisement in the case we are addressing. The recipient looks at an image of a naked woman and immediately perceives suggestive details even when they private parts are hidden from the recipient. This connotation in itself enables us to consider a problem that has been observed by Kagan who questions as to the manner in which advertisers can keep their viewers engaged to their messages (Kagan in Lang, 1993, pp.16-17). Furthermore, to Kagan, the problem arises as a result of the inability "to receive information from the viewer and deliver information to the viewer (Kagan in Lang, 1993, p.17). In other words, advertising should be more interactive as opposed to passive so that both the recipient and the sender are able to communicate with one another to achieve satisfaction in this capacity.


This kind of communication either requires an interactive consumer who can decide to go ahead and purchase the advertised commodity or responds to the message in a timely manner (Stern, 1994, p.13). For instance, the response given within the case report indicates a positive trend in which the consumer is cooperating with the advertiser in order to point out flaws within the advert. Nevertheless, this argument presupposes that all consumers are able to make informed deliberations on the matters presented within adverts, which is not the actual situation. Such a problem is witnessed when considering children; how do we know what they really think? Truth be told, children are nowadays experiencing unprecedented attention from market practitioners (Schineider, 1987 cited in Kline, 1993, p.18). This is actually because of the current trend that marketers have taken regarding children as potential market opportunities for business growth and development. But in the light of the case under this essay’s scrutiny, we should try to find out whether the advertisements targeting children are actually transforming the lives of children.

For that matter, as aforementioned, a question arises as to whether the Naked Tan offers promising results in the lives of children. There are worries over issues of paedophilia, pornography, among other deviant sexual behaviours. However, it could also seem ironical to object towards advertising to children. Terry O’Sullivan puts this idea into perspective by asserting that "by objecting to advertising to children can be read as a form of political substitution for objecting to advertising in general (Sullivan, 2005, p.374).”


Having realized that adverts are indubitable and that children are among the highest recipients of adverts, we are actually left with an option to consider addressing sensitive matters whenever authoring an advertisement. In many ways, advertisements are presented bearing suggestive information or at times implied information. This manner of presentation offers the recipient an opportunity to digest the information in his capacity in order to make informed decisions purchase decisions. The same should apply when addressing children matters. Children are considered as having different ways of perceiving reality as opposed to adults due to their limited experiences. For them, the Naked Tan might present a pornographic scenario rather than the intended commercial purpose in which case they might probably enjoy the sexual element in those advertisement displays or shun it. But whenever such information is repeatedly presented there is a possibility that it might lure them to sexual deviancy.


When considering the kind of advertisements targeting children and those targeting adults, we are drawn towards the process model of advertisement. This model deals with the steps through which advertisement information passes to reach the intended recipient. The previous traditional model was rather linear as it was accustomed to a hierarchical advertisement scenario, that is, "attention, interest, desire, and action (AIDA) (Huey, 1999, p.43).” then, "awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action (DAGMAR) (Huey, 1999, p.43). Alternatively, advertisements could pass through "knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase (Learn-Feel-Do (Huey, 1999, p.43).” However, in the Double Helix process model, the consumer receives the advertisement messages and then takes time in order to arrive at informed decisions. In this case, the customer can decide either to make a purchase or to remain indifferent. In other words, the decision-making process is at the consumer’s disposal. Most importantly, with regard to the helix model, its structure "suggests that one ad, one exposure, even one campaign cannot communicate the rich compound of signals and cues that advertisers must bind with their brands in order to achieve differentiation and create perceptions of value (Huey, 1999, p.48).”

The Future in Advertisement

What is the way forward in as far as advertisements are concerned? The world has gone through a tremendous transformation concerning advertisements. This has been facilitated by technological advancement, cultural diversification, and changes in consumer tests and preferences among other factors. When analyzing the case we are able to cite a scenario where a picture of a naked woman is found stack on the spear wheel of a car. This is actually one way of ensuring that people constantly remember the product on the advert. In other words, people are continuously adopting different advertising media. Steve Smith in response to this emerging trend of exploring newer options presents the term " podvertising (2005)” which focuses on the emerging trend for companies to use iPods in advertising campaigns.


As we evaluate the present situation in the world, and as we notice the historical overview of advertising campaigns, there stands out one major factor that should be taken seriously; the ethical perspective. We observe this in the light of the case report of the Naked Tan. The case allows us to examine the ethical impact of the adverts we read, watch, and listen. John Dalla Costa seeks to find out whether present marketers are more inclined to ethical practices compared to previous marketers (Costa, 2006). Ethical considerations are increasingly gaining ground in the marketplace with numerous ethical codes being set in place as a caution against careless advertisers. But ethics go hand in hand with culture. This is mainly because of the fact that different cultural backgrounds bear different cultural perspectives. That is the reason why people from different cultures perceive the exposure of some parts of the human body differently.


Therefore, culture and advertising have a connection that most advertisers address in their communication channels. For instance, different countries can exhibit different advertising strategies. However, under this understanding, Taylor (2005) goes ahead to seek clarification on whether national culture has an effect on consumer response. Consequently, in case national culture does indeed have an effect on consumer response then the impact of culture is much preferable as opposed to global advertising strategies (Taylor, 2005). In that case, the advertisement covered in the case report under our consideration will definitely be inapplicable in other cultures. Inasmuch as the advertising goal might be the same, the means might bear contradictory results. However, Scott Koslow and Carolyn Costley (2010, p.223) argue that comparisons between two heterogeneous countries could tend to mislead especially when there is no link between the means and the target group. Therefore, marketers tend to focus more on their products, marketplaces, cultural backgrounds, and technological factors in place.

Finally, it is by considering the various aspects of culture that we can be able to come up with a typical advertising campaign. According to Richard Pollay advertising has to be persuasive (2007, p.9). In order to achieve the persuasive element, advertising should be made relentless and pervasive. Advertising should also be meant to transform people’s lives for the better. In other words, if by portraying a nude image is ethically misleading since it is rather encouraging suggestive information and deviant sexual interactions that will damage moral stability in society. This means that that kind of advert is not transforming people’s lives for the better but the contrary. In order to transform positively, advertising campaigns must be safeguarded by values. This requires an understanding about those aspects of life that are appreciated in their respective cultures. For instance according to Pollay, "people value practicality, wisdom, youthfulness, experience, neatness, popularity, autonomy” among other (Pollay, 2007, p.11). Additionally, individuals have different regards concerning the aforementioned values. To some youthfulness might be the most important of all values while others might regard autonomy as their most adorable value. However, there are some values which are endorsed by everyone such as prudence, patriotism, and politeness.


Advertisement as a Persuasive art

It is therefore after going through the various aspects of advertising that we are able to come to a realization of the factors under which the Naked Tan case was dismissed. For instance, that the advertisement was done in an artistic and tasteful manner with an intention to persuade. In this case, then the most important consideration should be that the ultimate goal of an advert takes precedence over the means although in the event that the means turns out to be socially deviant, then there is no justification. Further, the woman in the advert was not presented as an exploited person since all measure were put in place in order to prevent the exposure of her private parts. However, in case this advert was to appear in other parts of the world where exposure to thighs is abhorred, then the effectiveness of the advert was to be questionable. This is in line with the cultural element, which, as we noticed, plays a significant role in determining the way an advert is presented to consumers. Moreover, advertising, as we observed in the previous sections, must remain resilient and continuous so that people can integrate the advertisement into their daily lives. The Naked Tan advert had been in the market for several years. This means that the advertisers were able to achieve the necessary resiliency and continuity. To further echo the resilient nature in advertising, the Naked Tan was able to remain pervasive in Australia. This was due to its use in various places such as magazines, beauty spars, over the web, and other publishing firms. In all the instances that the advert was used there were no complains about its negative impact. Instead, it had been presented in various media channels for various clients.


However, the fact that an advert is able to appear in different channel does not offer it legitimacy. It should rather be held that an advert be presented with an ultimate aim of promoting values in society. In addition, as we previously observed, values can be subjective even though there exist those values that are common to all society members.


In this essay, the author started by examining the Naked Tan case by first establishing advertising as an undeniable phenomenon. As it resurfaced, advertising operates under various aspects such as values, media, culture, among others all of which determine the extent to which advertising campaigns are legitimate and ethical. Moreover, advertising has been observed to undergo tremendous change over the years. Whereby, the traditional channels of advertising have been replaced more recent ethically considerate and customer-controlled ones. For instance, there are currently numerous advertisements being processed through phones and other portable gadgets. The bottom line is that advertisement has been diversified into various channels of communication and that it can be established in many places such as cars, networks, computers, and the rest. However, one thing that came out prominently was that advertising must be able to persuade, remain resilient, and be repetitive so that it becomes people’s occupation. The author also paid tribute to the future of advertisements and the role that advertisement plays in society. Therefore, as the author comes to a conclusion regarding this vital concept of advertising, it is also important to note that a lot of research should be done to explore the psychological element of advertising so that advertisers may be able to present relevant information to their consumers without destroying the established norms in society.



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